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mongoose-os-libs/mqtt mgos_mqtt.h   api_mqtt.js

This library provides MQTT protocol client API that allows devices to talk to MQTT servers.

Mongoose OS implements MQTT 3.1.1 client functionality, and works with all popular MQTT server implementations, like AWS IoT, Google IoT Core, Microsoft Azure, IBM Watson, HiveMQ, Mosquitto, etc.

In order to talk to an MQTT server, configure MQTT server settings - see Configuration section below. Once configured, Mongoose OS keeps that connection alive by reconnecting and re-subscribing to all topics after disconnections - you do not need to implement the reconnection logic.

If you want to use TLS, set mqtt.ssl_ca_cert=ca.pem. Make sure that ca.pem file has required CA certificates. If you want to use mutual TLS, set mqtt.ssl_cert=CLIENT_CERT.pem and mqtt.ssl_key=PRIVATE_KEY.pem.

See example video (don't forget to set mqtt.enable=true before you try it):


The MQTT library adds mqtt section to the device configuration:

  "clean_session": true,        // Clean session info stored on server 
  "client_id": "",              // If not set, is used
  "enable": false,              // Enable MQTT functionality
  "keep_alive": 60,             // How often to send PING messages in seconds
  "pass": "",                   // User password
  "reconnect_timeout_min": 2,   // Minimum reconnection timeout in seconds
  "reconnect_timeout_max": 60,  // Maximum reconnection timeout in seconds
  "server": "",  // Server to connect to. if `:PORT` is not specified,
                                // 1883 or 8883 is used depending on whether SSL is enabled.
  "ssl_ca_cert": "",            // Set this to file name with CA certs to enable TLS
  "ssl_cert": "",               // Client certificate for mutual TLS
  "ssl_cipher_suites": "",      // TLS cipher suites
  "ssl_key": "",                // Private key for the client certificate
  "ssl_psk_identity": "",       // If set, a preshared key auth is used
  "ssl_psk_key": "",            // Preshared key
  "user": "",                   // MQTT user name, if MQTT auth is used
  "will_message": "",           // MQTT last will message
  "will_topic": ""              // MQTT last will topic
  "cloud_events": true,         // Trigger cloud events when connected / disconnected"
  "debug_use_log_level": false, // Use the original cs_log_level enum instead of stdout/stderr flag

Reconnect behavior and backup server

It is possible to have a "backup" server that device will connect to if it fails to connect to the primary server.

Backup server is configured under the mqtt1 section which contains exactly the same parameters as mqtt described above.

Device will first try to connect to the main server configured under mqtt. It will keep connecting to it, increasing the reconnection interval from reconnect_timeout_min to reconnect_timeout_max. Reconnection interval is doubled after each attempt so for values above there will be connection attempts after 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 60 seconds. After reaching the maximum reconnect interval and if mqtt1.enable is set, it will switch to the mqtt1 configuration and reset the reconnect interval, so it will try to connect to mqtt1 the same way. If that works, it will stay connected to mqtt1. If connection drops, it will try to reconnect to mqtt1 in the same way. If connection to backup server fails, it will go back to the main server and so on.


See for some background information.


void mgos_mqtt_global_subscribe(const struct mg_str topic,
                                mg_event_handler_t handler, void *ud);

Subscribe to a specific topic. This handler will receive SUBACK - when first subscribed to the topic, PUBLISH - for messages published to this topic, PUBACK - acks for PUBLISH requests. MG_EV_CLOSE - when connection is closed.


void mgos_mqtt_add_global_handler(mg_event_handler_t handler, void *ud);

Registers a mongoose handler to be invoked on the global MQTT connection


typedef void (*mgos_mqtt_connect_fn_t)(struct mg_connection *c,
                                       const char *client_id,
                                       struct mg_send_mqtt_handshake_opts *opts,
                                       void *fn_arg);

Callback signature for mgos_mqtt_set_connect_fn(), see its docs for details.


void mgos_mqtt_set_connect_fn(mgos_mqtt_connect_fn_t cb, void *fn_arg);

Set connect callback. It is invoked when CONNECT message is about to be sent. The callback is responsible to call mg_send_mqtt_handshake_opt()


struct mg_connection *mgos_mqtt_get_global_conn(void);

Returns current MQTT connection if it is established; otherwise returns NULL


bool mgos_mqtt_global_connect(void);

Attempt MQTT connection now (if enabled and not already connected). Normally MQTT will try to connect in the background, at certain interval. This function will force immediate connection attempt.


void mgos_mqtt_global_disconnect(void);

Disconnect from and/or stop trying to connect to MQTT server until mgos_mqtt_global_connect() is called.


bool mgos_mqtt_global_is_connected(void);

Returns true if MQTT connection is up, false otherwise.


uint16_t mgos_mqtt_pub(const char *topic, const void *message, size_t len,
                       int qos, bool retain);

Publish message to the configured MQTT server, to the given MQTT topic. Return value will be the packet id (> 0) if there is a connection to the server and the message has been queued for sending. In case no connection is available, 0 is returned. In case of QoS 1 return value does not indicate that PUBACK has been received; there is currently no way to check for that.


uint16_t mgos_mqtt_pubf(const char *topic, int qos, bool retain,
                        const char *json_fmt, ...);
uint16_t mgos_mqtt_pubv(const char *topic, int qos, bool retain,
                        const char *json_fmt, va_list ap);

Variant of mgos_mqtt_pub for publishing a JSON-formatted string


typedef void (*sub_handler_t)(struct mg_connection *nc, const char *topic,
                              int topic_len, const char *msg, int msg_len,
                              void *ud);
 * Subscribe on a topic on a configured MQTT server.
void mgos_mqtt_sub(const char *topic, sub_handler_t, void *ud);

Callback signature for mgos_mqtt_sub() below.


size_t mgos_mqtt_num_unsent_bytes(void);

Returns number of pending bytes to send.


uint16_t mgos_mqtt_get_packet_id(void);

Returns next packet id; the returned value is incremented every time the function is called, and it's never 0 (so after 0xffff it'll be 1)


void mgos_mqtt_set_max_qos(int qos);

Set maximum QOS level that is supported by server: 0, 1 or 2. Some servers, particularly AWS GreenGrass, accept only QoS0 transactions. An attempt to use any other QoS results into silent disconnect. Therefore, instead of forcing all client code to track such server's quirks, we add mechanism to transparently downgrade the QoS.




Return value: true if MQTT connection is up, false otherwise.


MQTT.sub(topic, handler)

Subscribe to a topic, and call given handler function when message arrives. A handler receives 4 parameters: MQTT connection, topic name, message, and userdata. Return value: none.


MQTT.sub('my/topic/#', function(conn, topic, msg) {
  print('Topic:', topic, 'message:', msg);
}, null);, message, qos, retain)

Publish message to a topic. If qos is not specified, it defaults to 0. If retain is not specified, it defaults to false. Return value: 0 on failure (e.g. no connection to server), 1 on success.

Example - send MQTT message on button press, with QoS 1, no retain:

let pin = 0, topic = 'my/topic';
GPIO.set_button_handler(pin, GPIO.PULL_UP, GPIO.INT_EDGE_NEG, 200, function() {
  let res ='my/topic', JSON.stringify({ a: 1, b: 2 }), 1);
  print('Published:', res ? 'yes' : 'no');
}, null);


MQTT.setEventHandler(handler, userdata)

Set MQTT connection event handler. Event handler is ev_handler(conn, ev, edata), where conn is an opaque connection handle, ev is an event number, edata is an event-specific data. ev values could be low-level network events, like Net.EV_CLOSE or Net.EV_POLL, or MQTT specific events, like MQTT.EV_CONNACK.


MQTT.setEventHandler(function(conn, ev, edata) {
  if (ev !== 0) print('MQTT event handler: got', ev);
}, null);
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